Treatments for Dry Eye Disease

This is the third and final installation of the comprehensive series we have presented on dry eye disease. Dr. Wade first discussed the symptoms you might experience if you have dry eye and the Dr. Garg explained the process of diagnosing they type of dry eye disease you might have. In this article Dr. Farid reviews treatment options based on your diagnosis of dry eye disease.treatments for dry eye

Treatments for Dry Eye Disease

As our understanding of dry eye disease expands, so do treatment options. We now know that dry eye disease is a multifactorial disease. There is no one cause so there is no one magic cure. Treatments aim to improve tear composition, reduce eye surface inflammation, and target eyelid margin disease. Here, we will review many treatment options, but the treatment combination or “cocktail” that is appropriate for you will depend on your specific type of dry eye disease. This is usually determined after some testing by your eye care provider.

Environmental, Dietary, and Medication Adjustments
Before going into specific dry eye treatments, there are modifiable causes and preventative methods to improve dry eyes. Simple changes in the environment, diet, and medications can be easy ways to improve symptoms.

Environmental Changes
As expected, a dry environment will worsen dry eyes. Humidifiers and moisture goggles have been shown to help alleviate these symptoms. Furthermore, situations that cause decreased blinking, such as prolonged use of computer screens, can worsen dry eyes. Patients should take frequent breaks from computer screens and reading, allowing their eyes to rest and resume normal blinking. When in windy, smoky, or dusty situations, sunglasses can act as a barrier to the eyes, reducing dry eye symptoms. Avoiding wind, fans, or any source of air blowing into the eyes may also help.

Dietary Changes
Drinking adequate water keeps patients hydrated and reduces exacerbations of dry eye symptoms. Omega-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been shown in many clinical studies to improve dry eyes. It is believed that these fatty acids help inhibit inflammatory mediators. Essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized and must be ingested through diet. Foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids include fish, other seafood, and flaxseed oil. Supplements are also available.

Adjusting Medications
Many medications are associated with dry eyes, and patients may benefit from adjusting doses or finding alternative treatments. You can work with your physician to weigh the costs and benefits about modifying your current medications if they are suspected to worsen dry eyes. Some of these medications include: hypertensive drugs, antihistamines, decongestants, antidepressants, acne medications, birth control, and hormone replacement therapy. Eye drops with preservatives, such as glaucoma medications, can also worsen dry eyes.

Lubricating Treatments
For patients with decreased tear production, supplementation of tears or reduction of tear drainage will improve symptoms.

Artificial tears, gels, and ointments
Artificial tears, gels, and ointments are readily available over the counter. Artificial tears are eye drops that are used throughout the day as needed, up to eight times for dry eyes. You must make sure to get “lubricating” drops. There are multiple available brands that are excellent and equivalent in providing artificial moisture. Avoid “redness relief” brands as they are focused on reducing appearance of the vessels in the eyes as opposed to actual dry eye relief. Gels and ointments are thicker and very effective but can blur vision. Non-commercial comparison testing between brands has not been done. Because the ingredients, preservatives, and consistency vary from brand to brand, it is recommended for patients to choose the best option that works well for them based on trial and error.

Preservatives are used in many eye drops to help them to last longer. Unfortunately, they can be irritating to the eyes, especially when used often (more than 4 drops/day) or with other drops containing preservatives (ie. glaucoma medications). Patients who frequently use eye drops are recommended to use preservative-free (PF) drops. Unfortunately, preservative-free drops are more expensive because they come in “single use” containers. You may be able to extend the life of each single use container by spreading out its contents over multiple uses throughout the day.

Lipid-containing lubricants, such as those with castor oil, attempt to mimic the oils found in the tears, reducing evaporative dry eyes, but more research is necessary to study their efficacy.

Punctal Plugs
Your ophthalmologist can place small plugs at a clinic visit into the punctum, a small hole at the upper and inner lids that drain tears from the eyes. One plug can be added initially, and if more tear retention is required, another plug can be added. There are absorbable and non-absorbable types. Absorbable types are made of collagen and last 1 week to 6 months. Once placed, they are not visible or removable. Non-absorbable plugs are usually silicone, and permanent. They are easily placed by your ophthalmologists and remain visible in follow-up exams. Some patients feel the plugs, and there may be mechanical rubbing, especially when the plug is not the proper size. Some patients may also experience excessive tearing with plugs. If problematic, patients can wait for the plugs to dissolve if absorbable or they can be removed with forceps if non-absorbable.

Autologous Serum
Serum is extracted from a patient’s blood and turned into an eye drop. The growth factors, vitamins, and antibodies present in serum are the same as those in natural tears. Evidence is showing significant promise in alleviating symptoms and signs of chronic dry eye disease. A good collaboration between a phlebotomy lab and compounding pharmacy is necessary to make the products. The products must be kept refrigerated or cold between uses. They can be frozen for long-term storage. Each blood draw provides a supply of drops that can last 3-6 months.

Hydroxypropyl Cellulose Ophthalmic Inserts (Lacrisert)
An insert is available for people who find regular artificial tear use to be difficult. A physician can order the inserts through a pharmacy. The patient places the insert in the inferior fornix of the eye, the area between the lower lid and sclera of the eye. It slowly dissolves over 24 hours, giving constant lubrication.

Anti-inflammatory Treatments
Inflammation is now being recognized as a major underlying cause of chronic and worsening dry eye disease. Many patients who have been suffering from chronic dry eyes, particularly those with autoimmune diseases like Sjogren’s Syndrome, will do well on treatments that reduce the amount of inflammation in the tear film and ocular surface. Your physician can order these medications for you if needed.

Cyclosporine A (Restasis)
The FDA approved Restasis for dry eyes in 2002. This is an immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory eye drop medication. Relief is not instant, and may take 6-8 weeks of sustained use for improvement in dry eye symptoms. Less than 20% of patients may experience a burning sensation with the drops, but the safety and tolerability profile is otherwise excellent.

Doxycycline and minocycline are used for inflammatory ocular surface and eyelid disease. The antibiotics have a dual effect: they act as anti-inflammatories and anti-microbials. As an anti-microbial, these medications can improve meibomian gland function. They can decrease lid bacterial flora, reducing a cause of meibomian lipid breakdown. A low-dose (doxycycline 20 mg BID) regimen for 1-2 months has been shown to be effective. Side effects are usual mild but include stomach upset, yeast infections, and photosensitivity.

Steroids act as anti-inflammatories. Because steroids are associated with complications in long-term use, they are mainly used in short pulses either at the initiation of treatment or as rescue during exacerbations. A short 4-6 week course is generally well tolerated as a “rescue treatment,” or an urgent treatment, to relieve intolerable symptoms quickly before resorting to other treatment options.

Meibomian Gland Treatments
Meibomian glands produce oils that are crucial in preventing our tears from evaporating too quickly. Treatments that target the glands can help patients with meibomian gland dysfunction or lid margin disease.

Warm compresses and lid scrubs
Warm compresses provide heat that warms the oils in the glands, unclogging the glands and improving oil flow. Warm washcloths, small rice bags heated in the microwave, or commercial hydrogel pads are all effective, and no studies have been done to compare the different methods. The heat. The compress should be placed over the eyes for 5-10 minute. Gentle circular or rolling massage of the eyelids can help express the oils from the glands.

Lid scrubs are useful particularly in cases of blepharitis, or mild inflammation of the lids, that cause them to become crusted. There are excellent over the counter commercial lid soap formulations that work well to clean the lid margins. Alternatively, baby shampoo and a washcloth gently applied to the lids can work as well.

Thermal pulsation (Lipiflow)
Lipiflow is an FDA approved in-office treatment for meibomian gland dysfunction and dry eyes. During the 12-minute procedure, a device is placed over the eye and eyelids that provides localized warmth and pressure on the lids (Figure 1).

treatments for dry eye
Image 1 – Lipiflow treatment

The procedure is 100% safe and very effective at clearing out the trapped oil glands and allowing smooth flow to be re-established. After approximately one month, the consistency of the oils in the tear flow will have improved remarkably with associated improvement in dry eye symptoms. With one procedure, the effects last between 12-24 months.

Intense Pulsed Light (IPL)
Originally approved for acne and rosacea dermatologic disease, IPL uses bursts of light to minimize blood vessel size. It can be used off-label for ocular rosacea and meibomian gland dysfunction, but results have not been reported.

There are many treatment options for dry eye disease. Generally, conservative over-the-counter treatments should be tried first. Commonly, environmental changes, dietary changes, artificial tears, and warm compresses will improve the majority of dry eye symptoms to tolerable levels. However, when these options are exhausted, there are many additional options for patients. Work closely with a trusted health professional to determine the optimal treatment combination as each patient is different.


treatments for dry eyeMarjan Farid, MD
Director of Cornea, Cataract, and Refractive Surgery
Vice-Chair of Ophthalmic Faculty
Director of the Cornea Fellowship Program
Associate Professor of Ophthalmology
Gavin Herbert Eye Institute, University of California, Irvine



treatments for dry eyePriscilla Q. Vu, MS
Medical Student
University of California, Irvine School of Medicine

Fuchs’ Dystrophy: Current Insights

What is Fuchs’ Dystrophy?

Corneal dystrophies are a debilitating group of progressive diseases that can ultimately deprive a person of sight. The cornea, which forms the front of the eye, is a window for vision, and dystrophies due to intrinsic defects in the corneal tissue cause this window to become opaque and hazy. Fuchs’ dystrophy, also known as Fuchs’ corneal endothelial dystrophy (FCED), is amongst the most commonly diagnosed corneal dystrophies requiring corneal transplantation. The ophthalmologist Ernest Fuchs first described the disease in 1910.

Who gets it?

The disease is rare, and it is difficult to predict who will get it. We know that it affects women more than men (3:1 ratio), older adults (older than 50 years of age), and those with a family history. There are forms in which there could be up to a 50% chance of transmission to children of parents with Fuchs’ dystrophy. Most cases, however, occur sporadically.

What causes it and how does it progress?

Although the cause of Fuchs’ dystrophy is still being studied, there are characteristic findings associated with it: small outgrowths on Descemet’s membrane called “guttae” or “guttata”, thickening of Descemet’s membrane, and defects in the endothelial cells (Figure 1).

fuchs dystrophy 1
Figure 1: Fuchs’ dystrophy can affect all layers of the cornea. Layers of the cornea from anterior to posterior, or frontside to backside, include (A) epithelial cells where blisters and bullae may form in late-stage disease, (B) Bowman’s layer where scarring can occur in late-stage disease, (C) stroma where corneal swelling occurs early in disease, (D) Descemet’s membrane where guttae form (arrows) and thickening occurs, and (E) endothelial cells that decrease in number and change shape and size with disease progression.

Descemet’s membrane is a thin corneal layer between the endothelial cell and the stromal layers of the cornea. Endothelial cells make up the backside of the cornea and function as a barrier and pump for keeping fluid out of the cornea and maintaining corneal clarity. As guttae accumulate on Descemet’s membrane, patients experience progressive loss and change in endothelial cells. Dysfunction of endothelial cells causes corneal swelling, which distorts vision. First, the back of the cornea swells, and eventually, swelling can reach the epithelial cells at the front of the cornea. Swelling can range from mild moisture accumulation, to painful “bullae”, or blisters. In very late-stage disease, significant corneal scar tissue can form and dramatically reduce vision. The progression to late stage Fuchs’ varies from person to person, but usually takes a couple of decades.

What are signs and symptoms?

A patient may be asymptomatic for years despite having guttae. Initial symptoms, including blurry, hazy, or cloudy vision, are typically due to corneal swelling from dysfunction of the endothelial cell layer. Patients may also experience glare or halos around light in the early stages just from the density of guttae. New studies suggest that patients can get glare and higher order aberrations from guttae without any corneal swelling. Symptoms tend to be worse on awakening, but usually improve throughout the day. This is because the closure of eyelids during sleep results in the accumulation of fluid in the cornea. For the same reason, humid weather can also worsen symptoms. As the disease progresses, poor vision may last longer into the day. There may be associated pain if blisters develop.

How is it diagnosed?

The presence of any of the above signs and symptoms, especially with a family history of Fuchs’, should prompt a consult with an ophthalmologist who will diagnose the disorder and follow its progression with regular checkups. An ophthalmologist will conduct a microscopic slit-lamp examination of the eyes, looking for guttae and Descemet’s membrane thickening (Figure 2).

fuchs dystrophy 2
Figure 2: Slit-lamp examination showing speckling pattern on the backside of the cornea characteristic of guttae in Fuchs’ dystrophy.

Special tests may be done to measure corneal thickness, a marker of swelling, or count endothelial cells to track disease progression (Figure 3 and 4).

fuchs dystrophy 3
Figure 3: Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) showing (A) a normal, healthy cornea and (B) corneal swelling typical in Fuchs’ dystrophy.

fuchs dystrophy 4
Figure 4: In-vivo slit-lamp scanning confocal microscopy showing (A) normal endothelial cells and (B) guttae causing endothelial cell loss and change in Fuchs’ dystrophy.

How is it managed?

Management can be medical or surgical depending on symptoms. Patients may have mild or slow progression of disease that can be managed medically including over the counter salt solution drops (5% NaCl) to reduce corneal edema.

When there is late-stage disease, a corneal transplant may be necessary to improve vision. A corneal transplant replaces the patient’s corneal tissue with human donor corneal tissue. Donor corneas are readily available via excellent eye banks throughout the United States. The surgery is outpatient surgery with regular follow-up appointments and suture removal during the subsequent months. The postoperative healing of the cornea and vision stabilization can take up to a year.

Great strides have been made in the last decade in corneal transplantation surgery, giving patients better treatment options. Patients used to be limited to penetrating keratoplasty (PK), a full-thickness replacement of the cornea. We now have newer surgeries known as endothelial keratoplasty (EK), which is a partial-thickness transplant that replaces only the damaged part of the cornea (the endothelial layer). The different types of EK are DSEK (Descemet’s-Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty) and DMEK (Descemet’s Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty). The techniques vary by thickness of the transplanted tissue. The type of EK most appropriate is determined by the corneal surgeon and is variable on a case to case basis. Both types of EK surgeries provide comparable long-term visual results. In both surgeries, the patient’s diseased Descemet’s membrane and endothelial cells are stripped from the inner layer of their cornea. The thin lamellar donor graft is then inserted into the eye and positioned onto the back of the patient’s cornea via a gas or air bubble. The patient is then instructed to lie in a face up position for several hours post surgery during which time the bubble supports the graft until the new endothelial cell pumps begin to wake up and naturally adhere to the back side of the recipient cornea. Occasionally, the doctor may replace another air bubble into the eye the next day to allow more time for the graft to adhere. Visual recovery is on the order of 1-2 weeks in DMEK and 2-3 months in DSEK surgery. Rejection risk is still a possibility in EK surgery but has a much lower rate than traditional full thickness PK surgery.

Other surgical considerations depend on the presence of cataracts. Cataract surgery can worsen Fuchs’ dystrophy because of damage to the endothelial cell layer. For this reason, patients with cataracts and Fuchs’ requiring surgical intervention are often recommended to undergo cataract surgery before or at the same time as corneal transplantation to ensure the best outcome for the transplant.

Patients should work with an ophthalmologist to determine the best management plan. Ultimately, vast improvements in treatment options have given many Fuchs’ dystrophy patients the exciting opportunity to regain vision with improved healing times and reduced infection and rejection of the graft.

Citations: Figure 2 and 4 are from Zhang J, Patel DV. The pathophysiology of Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy—a review of molecular and cellular insights. Exp Eye Res. 2015 Jan


priscilla-thumbnailPriscilla Q. Vu, MS
Medical Student
University of California, Irvine School of Medicine

Farid 3.6.14Marjan Farid, MD
Director of Cornea, Cataract, and Refractive Surgery
Vice-Chair of Ophthalmic Faculty
Director of the Cornea Fellowship Program
Associate Professor of Ophthalmology
Gavin Herbert Eye Institute, University of California, Irvine

New Hope for Corneal Scarring


There are several etiologies for limbal stem cell deficiency of the front of the eye. These include chemical and thermal burns, Steven-Johnson syndrome (which is an autoimmune severe allergic reaction that causes a burn from within), congenital aniridia, and a few other insults such as contact lens over-wear. All of these cause severe ocular surface scarring and problems with the cornea. Many eyes with these diseases have problems with corneal healing. They do not have the stem cells to support ocular surface health. The scarring can be so severe in many cases that severe corneal blindness can result.

Limbal stem cells from the human cornea, with a protein known as p63 stained yellow. Cell nuclei (which hold the DNA) are stained red.  From
Limbal stem cells from the human cornea, with a protein known as p63 stained yellow. Cell nuclei (which hold the DNA) are stained red. From

In these cases, a simple corneal transplant will quickly fail and not result in any visual improvement. The reason for this is that the stem cells of the ocular surface have been damaged or burned out.

Visual rehabilitation for these eyes usually requires a limbal-corneal stem cell transplantation. The stem cells can be taken from the other healthy eye of the same patient, a living related donor, and or cadaveric tissue. In most cases systemic immunosuppression medications need to be taken for 1 to 3 years following surgery in order to minimize risk of rejection. Management of these patients is done in conjunction with an immunologist or a transplant specialist who can co-manage and monitor for systemic toxicity while the patient is on the these immunosuppressive medications. As most of these eyes also have concomitant glaucoma and scarring of the eyelids to the globe, co-management with a glaucoma specialist and an oculoplastic specialist is also required.

For patients who cannot be on systemic immunosuppression for other health reasons such as diabetes or cancer, they may require an artificial corneal transplantation. The artificial corneal transplantation is reserved as a last step for visual rehabilitation in these eyes. The only artificial cornea that has shown potential, is the Boston keratoprosthesis. Even this artificial cornea carries a high risk for infection and glaucoma. Very close monitoring of eyes that have an artificial cornea is required to monitor for infection and glaucoma progression. However these eyes do not require systemic immunosuppression.

Eye with Boston keratoprosthesis
Eye with Boston keratoprosthesis

The management of eyes with severe ocular surface disease is a difficult one for the cornea specialist. A subspecialist in severe ocular surface disease and limbal stem cell transplantation is required to manage these very sick eyes. At the Gavin Herbert Eye Institute, we have developed a team approach for the management of severe ocular surface disease patients and have successfully treated and are managing many patients who have otherwise no place to go.

Farid 3.6.14Marjan Farid, MD
Director of Cornea, Cataract, and Refractive Surgery
Vice-Chair of Ophthalmic Faculty
Director of the Cornea Fellowship Program
Associate Professor of Ophthalmology
Gavin Herbert Eye Institute, University of California, Irvine

Implantable Miniature Telescope Update

The Macular Degeneration Partnership, a program of the Discovery Eye Foundation,  has received numerous questions about the implantable miniature telescope (IMT) since it was approved by the FDA in 2010.

Implantable Miniature Telescope
Implantable Miniature Telescope
The IMT is becoming more widely available now. The IMT is a tiny telescope implanted inside the eye that may benefit older adults with advanced AMD. Smaller than a pea, this device is proven to restore sight and quality of life in eligible candidates. Unfortunately, the inclusion criteria to be eligible for the device are narrow.  Most importantly, the IMT can only be implanted into an eye that has not had a cataract removed yet.   We encourage you to review the below information to see if you or a loved one might be a candidate for this procedure. Approximately 2 million Americans have advanced forms of AMD, which is the leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 65. When an individual has severe wet macular degeneration, or dry AMD with geographic atrophy, it is sometimes called “end-stage AMD”. Patients with end-stage AMD have a central blind spot or missing area in their vision. But, despite the availability of drug treatments that slow the progression of AMD, the number of people with end-stage AMD is expected to double by the year 2050.

Specifically, the telescope implant uses micro-optical technology to magnify images which would normally be seen in your “straight ahead,” or central, vision. The images are projected onto the healthy portion of the retina not affected by the disease, making it possible for patients to see straight ahead. The procedure is performed on one eye only, and involves removing the eye’s natural lens and replacing it with the tiny telescope implant. This is similar to the surgery performed to remove a cataract, which is a clouding of the natural lens. The other eye remains as is to preserve peripheral vision, which is important for balance and orientation. The surgery is done in an outpatient setting by a specially-trained ophthalmologist called a cornea/cataract surgeon. The telescope implant is FDA approved and available through Medicare.

Although the telescope implant is not a cure for AMD, studies showed that in general patients were able to see 3 to 4 lines better on the eye test chart and demonstrated improved quality of life on the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire. Two multi-year clinical studies enrolled over 225 patients to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the telescope implant used in the CentraSight treatment program.   To be considered a candidate for the telescope implant, an ophthalmologist must first confirm that you:

• Have irreversible, End-Stage AMD resulting from either dry or wet AMD
• Are no longer a candidate for drug treatment of your AMD
• Have not had cataract surgery in the eye in which the telescope will be implanted
• Meet age, vision, and cornea health requirements

Some people with end-stage AMD may not be a candidate for a telescope implant. Patients and their physicians will assess if the benefits of the procedure outweigh the potential risks to decide if this treatment option is right for them.

CentraSight is the program that guides people with end-stage AMD through the telescope implant evaluation, surgery and rehabilitation process.  While the out-patient procedure is quick, patients also must commit to a comprehensive occupational therapy program to learn how to use their new vision (and way of seeing) in daily life. Click here to watch a video that shows how the implantable telescope works.

“After surgery, one of the most important aspects of the telescope implant procedure is the rehabilitation,” said Dr. Marjan Farid, Associate Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology at the University of California-Irvine School of Medicine. “Specially trained optometrists and occupational therapists work with patients to teach them how to use their new vision because there are different techniques involved when you are sitting still (for example, reading or watching TV) than when you are moving around, such as walking or cooking.”

The CentraSight treatment program is coordinated by retina specialists who treat macular degeneration and other back-of-the-eye disorders.  Before deciding to have the surgery, a special vision test is given in the office.  A device simulates what a person may expect to see once the telescope is implanted to determine if the potential improvement will meet the patient’s expectations. Once the telescope has been implanted by an eye surgeon, the patient will need to work with vision rehabilitation specialists (approximately 6 to 12 weeks) to learn how to use their new vision in their everyday activities. Risks include all those associated with cataract surgery, such as postoperative inflammation, raised intraocular pressure, corneal swelling, and the potential for comprised corneal health.

“The first patient whom I implanted with this telescope over a year and a half ago states that she can now recognize the faces of her children and grandchildren,” said Dr. Farid. “For patients with AMD, face recognition of loved ones is a major improvement in the overall quality of their life.”

CentraSight treatment centers are available across the nation. Patients can call 1-877-99-SIGHT to find one in their area.

Judi Delgado headshotJudith Delgado
Executive Director
Macular Degeneration Partnership

Corneal Transplant Surgery Options

In this day and age of advancing technology, corneal transplants have changed from a long arduous ordeal to a more simple and precise procedure that offers faster visual recovery.  Instead of replacing the entire cornea for any and all corneal diseases, we now perform disease targeted partial corneal transplants.  If the disease involves the back layer of the cornea, we perform endothelial keratoplasty and replace only the diseased inner layer of the cornea.  Conversely, if the problematic portions are the front layers of the cornea, we perform anterior lamellar keratoplasty.  The co-morbidity and risk of rejection from partial corneal transplants are significantly less than the traditional full thickness transplants.

With endothelial keratoplasty, a small incision, about 4-5 mm is made and a sheet of donor endothelial cells are placed into the anterior chamber of the eye.  A large air bubble is then used to float this sheet up so that it opposes the posterior or back portion of the cornea.  The patient is asked to position face up for 24 hours.  Over this period of time, the cells will “stick” on their own and thus no sutures are required to keep the graft in place.,/span>

Figure 1 - corneal transplant
Figure 1

Anterior lamellar keratoplasty is done for superficial scars and opacities of the cornea or for keratoconus, a genetic degeneration of the cornea that is seen in younger individuals.  In this case, the native endothelial cells of the patient are healthy and therefore are left intact while the remainder of the cornea is transplanted.  This significantly lowers the risk of rejection, which is traditionally a much higher risk in young patients.  Multiple sutures are required to maintain this graft in place however, with the advent of femtosecond laser technology, the wound configuration is made in such a way as to promote rapid healing and visual recovery. (Figure 1)  Sutures are removed at an earlier time than with traditional surgery and the eye is able to undergo visual rehabilitation with glasses or contact lenses in 3-6 months’ time.

Corneal transplantation does not require waiting on a list for a donor to become available like it once did.  There are now multiple excellent eye banks across America that harvest, screen, and distribute donor tissue to surgeons.  This way, tissue is readily available and patients only need to schedule a time based on their own and their surgeon’s time schedule.  Post operatively, patients are asked to return to regular activity with the exception of no heavy lifting or bending for a period of 2 months.  Antibiotic and anti-rejection drops are started immediately after surgery and continued for several months after.  No oral medications aside from the patient’s regular medications are required.

Farid 3.6.14Marjan Farid, MD
Director of Cornea, Cataract, and Refractive Surgery
Vice-Chair of Ophthalmic Faculty
Director of the Cornea Fellowship Program
Associate Professor of Ophthalmology
Gavin Herbert Eye Institute, University of California, Irvine